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Disc GDU 3.2 !!BETTER!!

This is a Romanian Disc Harrow mod fully converted from FS17 to FS19 and more has been done.This disc works best with the Romanian Tractors mods Universal 650 video on youtube (UTB 650 Converted to FS19).This Disc have 3 Harrows you can pick up with your hand but to be able to pick up you need to download another mod (Lifting heavy things).

Disc GDU 3.2

If we consider SMA applications, it can be concluded that using SMAs in marine applications requires huge research into the behaviour of this alloy in different laboratory or seawater environments. The complexity of the marine environment in different commercial SMA applications can be manifested through various physical phenomena of corrosion, such as general, intergranular, pitting, galvanic, crevice, stress, cavitation corrosion, corrosive fatigue, etc. [14]. According to the available research, it was discovered that the NiTi alloy has good resistance to stress corrosion cracking and good resistance in the marine environment [15]. However, corrosion tests have shown that impact corrosion, cavitation corrosion, stress corrosion [16], and pitting corrosion [17] can occur in different marine applications.

For the purposes of this paper, both multivariate analyses were conducted on a matrix in order to define the qualitative and quantitative impacts of certain types of marine environments on the corrosive behaviour of the NiTi discs. In the matrixused, experimentally obtained corrosion parameters from the EDX analysis were variables (columns), while different measuring points on the NiTi discs (spectrums) represented rows.

The shift of the potential of alloys towards more positive values is explained by passivation, i.e., the formation of an oxide film on the surface of the tested discs. The protective layer has an increasing thickness and becomes more compact over time. This film prevents the passage of aggressive chloride ions from the solution, thus protecting the material from further corrosion.

Linear polarisation is an electrochemical technique of determining the corrosion rate based on the determination of the corrosion current from the slope of the polarisation curve in the immediate vicinity of the corrosion potential, as well as on the determination of the polarisation resistance, Rp. Rp is defined as the slope of the polarisation curve at the corrosion potential. The current-potential ratio in the vicinity of the open-circuit potential (20 mV) is monitored experimentally by the linear polarisation method. The values of the polarisation resistance of the corrosion current density and the potential when the current density is equal to zero, i.e., E (j = 0) were determined by extrapolating the linear dependences from the Figure 7. The values are shown in Table 2. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the NiTi discs were stable in the tested solution, i.e., they have a low corrosion rate. Comparing the results based on the value of the polarisation resistance Rp and the most positive potential when the current density is equal to zero, the disc that had been in the atmosphere had the lowest corrosion rate. The highest corrosion rate was with the disc in seawater because this disc had the highest value of current density and lowest value of polarisation resistance. The initial disc had the most negative potential, which corresponds to the highest corrosion rate. Polarisation resistance i.e., corrosion current density are the most important and relevant parameters for determining a corrosion rate. OCP potential does not provide exact values of corrosion rate, as do polarisation resistance and corrosion current density.

The representative micrographs of the NiTi discs with the corresponding metal content results after 6 months of exposure: (a,d) in seawater; (b,e) in a tidal zone; (c,f) in atmosphere.

Figure 9b shows the impact of the ebb and flood tidal zone on the microstructure of the examined NiTi disc. As shown in Figure 9b, the deposits on the surface are more compact in comparison with the surface deposits that were submerged in seawater. There were no significant variations in the content of the metals; therefore, the corrosive impact of the two types of marine environments cannot be differentiated precisely.

On the other hand, in both types of marine environments, voids and cracks appeared on the surface layer, which confirms the high corrosion susceptibility of the NiTi discs examined in the marine environments [45].

The exposure of the discs to the atmosphere (Figure 9c) resulted in surface deposits that were thinner and more compact in comparison with the deposits that emerged in the seawater and tidal zone. Based on the EDX analysis, the content of the deposits on the examined surface included corrosion products and inorganic salts (airborne salts). Inorganic salts reached the surface because of the high relative humidity (RH) level of the marine atmosphere [46] and through the vapour that was condensed or absorbed by the exposed surfaces. Consequently, an electrolyte layer was formed on the surface of the discs [43,46,47]. Inorganic salts in the surface water film ensure the conductivity of the film. The conductivity of the film controls ion migration to metal surfaces directly and the subsequent corrosion degree caused by the ion migration [48].

As shown in Figure 10, the examined types of marine environment scan be classified in two distinct clusters based on the impact on the corrosion of the NiTi discs. In that sense, the first cluster contains the data from several measuring points (spectrums) that show the effect of seawater (M) and several points that were under tidal influences (P). There was a notable difference between the data (vertical deviation). The data obtained from the measuring of the influences of seawater were particularly different from other data in the same cluster. In that regard, the data on seawater effects form a subcluster, with the exception of points M44, M46, and M42. These points represent untypical impacts of the environment, so the related data could be excluded from further analysis, with the aim of the identification of typical environmental effects and the differences and similarities between the corrosive effects.

The second cluster from the obtained dendrogram contains the remaining measured data, which indicates that the analysed types of environments do not exhibit great or notable differences interms of corrosive impact on the NiTi discs. However, within the second cluster, there are subclusters with clearly separated data based on the type of environment (the atmosphere, tidalzone, and seawater). Such findings indicate that cluster analysis can detect small differences between similar corrosive influences of the analysed types of environments during the period of exposure. Figure 11 shows the distribution of the different types of corrosive environments based on PCA.

PCA forms principal components as a linear combination of the original variables, and recognises and excludes redundant data that do not contain new information and encumber the analysed system. For these reasons, PC1, as the first principal component, should describe the corrosion of the analysed NiTi disc prevalently in all types of environments. The obtained PC1 values for all types of environments were correlated with the oxygen content obtained by means of the EDX analysis (Figure 13) in order to confirm the previous statement. 041b061a72

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